Saturday 25 November 2017

How many seats in Indian railway coaches.

In indian railway coaches How many seat available for setting & slipping.
Indian railway coaches will be design with deference arrangement for passengers according to fare paid in journey and how many longer distance cover by train. for passengers compatible journey railway coaches first divided into Air conditioning coaches and Non Air conditioning coaches, Also second division made for setting arrangement and sleeping aragements.

According to railway running and data available railway coaches divided in following broad categories..

A) Non Air conditioning coaches

1) Un-reserved coaches.(D)
In un-reservation coaches give as a second class seating arrangement with 90 seats available in each coaches. it is frequently used in LOCAL TRAIN such a intercity and small distance running train but also two to five coach available in long distance (700 to 1500 KM) running train.

2) Sleeper Class Coaches..(S1)

Sleeper class coaches have both seating (Day) and sleeping (night ) for 72 numbers of passengers. it is non Air condition coach but benefits of these coaches fare is economical. sleeper class have 10 to 15 coaches in major non AC train hence passengers carrying capacity increased.

3) second seating coaches (2S)
 Second seating type coach have non Air conditioning with reservation option for passengers travail medium distance journey. this coaches have 108 numbers of seats. fare of second seating coach is between general coach and sleeper class.

Air conditioning coaches

1) 3 tier Air conditioning coaches. (3A)
This coach similar to sleeper coach but there HVAC (Heating ventilation and air conditioning) system provide for comfortable journey in all seasons. Fare of 3 tier AC coaches increase two times of sleeper coaches. Number of birth available in this coach 64 only where sleeper non AC coach have 72 seats.

2) 2 Tier Air conditioning coaches. (2A)

In two tier air conditioning seats arrangement divided of upper and lower seat,this is also Air conditioning coach and fare more than 3 tier coaches.
Number of seats available for seating 46 .

3) AC First class coach (1A)

AC first class coaches side upper & lower seats not available hence each section made a compartment of four seats,total number of seats in AC first class coaches are 22 only. this type coaches more comfortable for journey but fare is very high.

4) chair car (cc)

Chair car air conditioning have 73 number of seats for seating with advance booking.

5) Executive chair cat (EC)

Executive chair car upgraded chair car and having 46 numbers of seats available.

6) Chair car in shatabdi train

In shatabadi train chair car have 78 seats in three row arrangement with middle leave for movement,but special arrangement of dinner table in center of coach in both rows. also small  pantry area provided for store food.

Friday 3 November 2017

Top 10 change in Indian railway with new time table effective from 1 November 2017.

New time table from 1 November 2017.

New time table introduce by indian railway from 1 November 2017 for utilization of system and improvement performance overall.
Regarding of idea for change old time table many trains take more time for journey while possibility to reduce time with utilization new technology. also many trains accident force old time table with new time table.


Now flowing highlights after new time table.

1) Time saving journey.
2) increased efficiency.
3) trains stopping time reduce at station.
4) Option for third gender in reservation form.
5) Meal make optional for rajdhani & shatabdi trains.
6) Conform seats/birth for pregnants & seek person.
7) book retirement with reservation.
8) Increased speed of train with LBH coaches.
9) fare benefits of senior citizens.
10) Reservation of tickets against nationality.

1) Time saving of journey.

new time table has been design for 500 (five hundreds) reduce journey overall. this is achieve by reduce staff change over time,rajdhani & shatabdi train crossing effective manner,train start station with line clear etc.

2) increased efficiency.

Railway system time table was focus on utilization of modern technology like automatic signal sytem,EoTT (end of train telemetry) sytem of goods train etc.
EoTT service specially for good train without guard have train driver take accurate decision to utilization train operation and eliminate human errors.

3) Train Stopping time reduced at station.

In new time table have made to stopping time reduce significantly, presently stopped time of major station are 10 minutes to 30 minutes will be reduce.

4) Option for third gender of reservation fom.

Railway introduce third gender in reservation form for transgender instead for old options Male and female.

5) Meals option made optional.

New time table have options for taking meals with ticket booking time,if option take for not take meals in journey in selected trains(such a rajdhani & shatabdi) automatic meals charge deducted from fare.

6) Conform birth for pregnant s woman & seek personal.

Railway made effective reservation system for give conform seat /birth against reservation made by pregnent and seek personal.

7) Book Retirement room with tickets.
For give effective service railway introduce service for Book Retirement room with tickets booking. Before 1 November 2017 retirement room booking will be at particular station only.

8) Increased train speed.

Railway made provision for increase average speed of trai with LBH coaches instead RCF coaches. LBH coaches designed to operating speed 160 Km/h where RCF coaches suitable to 130 km/h have increased average speed of trains.

9) Fare benefits of the senior citizens

In new time table effective from 1 November 2017 make provision for senior citizens to option have 50 % concession or 100 % fare concession.

10) Reservation again fill nationality.

Railway made to reservation of Indian railway train for Indian citizens, hence option given in form to check nationality otherwise tickets not book.

Wednesday 18 October 2017

How to earn rs 40,000/month start home work for making paper plate and bowl। घर पर अपने लिए ४०००० रूपया हर महिने कमाये पेपर प्लेट और दोना बनाकर ।

Above given link for complete process of making paper plate and bowl even packaging, bundling and kept ready to delivery.

hello everyone.
नमस्कार सभी को ।
आज हम इस blog  के माध्यम से बताने वाले है कि कैसे हम अपने द्वारा कम पुँजी लगाकर अच्छा कमाई (income) कर.सकते है।
यहां हम आपको पेपर बनाने के मशीन के बारे मे बताते है |
Machine(मशीन ) तीन प्रकार के बजार मे मिलती हैं ।
1)हाथ सँचालित Hand press:-
यह मशीन कम लागत कि होती है जिसका मूल्य 10000 हजार से 20000 हजार तक होता है।
जिसमें Dia (साचा) लगाकर हाथ से चलाकर सभी प्रकार के प्लेट और दोना बनाया जाता है ।
2)Electrical motor operating machine(बिजली सँचालित मशीन)
यह मशीन द्वारा तेजी से प्लेट या दोने का निर्माण किया जाता है लेकिन मशीन कि मुल्य rs 60000 से rs 100000. तक होता है। जिसमें एक या दो  (single or double) dia लगाया जा सकता है ।

3)Air operating machine
इस मशीन कि किमत लगभग rs 40000 से rs 80000 होता है। समान्यतः इसका प्रयोग बडे साईज के थाली बनाने मे किया जाता है ।

इन सभी मशीनों के सहायता से अपनी रोजगार शुरू किया जा सकता है,जिससे rs 30000 से rs 40000 महिने कि कमाइ हो सकता है ।

Friday 13 October 2017

Open circuit and short circuit test for transformer iron loss and copper loss.

Transformer known low loss among the electrical machine, hence efficiency of transformer about 98% at full load operation.
But some lossless have,it is determined by open circuit test and short circuit test.

Open circuit test of transformer.
Open circuit test of transformer determine iron loss as a eddy current loss and hysteresis loss.
in open circuit test HT(high tension) side of transformer open and testing done with LT side (low tension) by apply rated voltage.
Watt meter connected in the circuit measured all lossless of transformer. but HT side open current through the winding flow very less hence copper loss neglected,it is 2 to 3 % of full load copper loss.

Short circuit test of transformer.

Short circuit test done to determine copper loss in transformer.
in short circuit test Low tension(LT) windings short circuit and high tension (HT) winding supply 10 % voltage,but due to LT short full load current achieve, hence full load copper shown in watt meter,here iron loss neglected because very small .

Sunday 8 October 2017

Delhi metro rail 2nd fare hike.दिल्ली मेट्रो रेल का दुसरी किराया बढोतरी 2017,

दिल्ली मेट्रो प्रबंधन द्वारा 10 October 2017 से साल कि दुसरी किराया बढाने का political विरोध शुरू हो गया है ।
Delhi chief minister sri Arvind kejriwal said it is not possible to 2nd fare hike in same year, also burden to common mango people.

According to DMRC Delhi Metro, which has been operational in the capital since 2002, is at present carrying around 27 lakh passengers everyday, and has become the lifeline of the city with a punctuality of over 99.7 per cent.

Since 2009, there has been no increase in fare, whereas the input cost for the DMRC has increased by over 105 per cent in energy, 139 per cent in staff cost and by 213 per cent for repair and maintenance.

Also give logic regarding fare hike in 2009 was increased 112 % for 2002 to 2009 period. but 2009 to 2017 only 92 % fare hike prosed in two phase.
Dmrc says fare hike was imperative in the wakes of rise input cost as well as operating cost 48 % (in 2011) to 69 % in 2015.
it is important to survival of DMRC operation and maintenance cost maintain and give customer delightful journey.

Political war between two stakeholders:- delhi government & govt. Of india(central urban development ministry)

Delhi government write a latter regarding fare hike to urban development ministry, while reply from ministry said it is not possible to stop fare hike because fare fixations committee decide two phase fare hike,if stop fare hike it is violation of metro railway rule(धारा) -37,if suspension of fare hike rs 3000 crore paid to DMRC and new committee enquiry done for feasibility.
According to the Indian express
Metro fare hike could be reconsidered if you pay DMRC Rs 3,000 crore every year: Centre to Kejriwal govt.

Old fare after first hike.

Upto 2km -rs 10.
02-05 km -rs 15.
05-12 km -rs 20.
12-21 km -rs 30.
21-32 km -rs 40.
Beyond 32-rs 50.

After second fare hike.

Upto 2km -rs 10.
02-05 km -rs 20
05-12 km -rs 30.
12-21 km -rs 40.
21-32 km -rs 50.
Beyond 32-rs 60.

I hope solution of this solve faithfully for DMRC commuters and DMRC survival for jong journey with trust.

Tuesday 26 September 2017

How to Work automatic transfer switch(ATS) with dual power supply

1) what is the ATS ?
ATS is abbreviation of automatic transfer switch, it is use to change over power source of dual feedings i.e Primary source & secondary source.

2) incoming source of ATS.
ATS connected from two source
👍primary_source generally electricity supply from government/private organisation and  secondary_source will be generator and interrupted power supply(UPS) etc.

3) Function of ATS.

An automatic transfer switch (ATS) is a device that automatically transfers a power supply from its primary source to a backup source when it senses a failure or outage in the primary source. When a failure occurs in a primary power system, the ATS invokes a standby power source, such as an uninterruptable power supply. An ATS can also start up more long-term backup power systems, such as local diesel generators, to run electric equipment until utility power is restored.

Since the ATS is connected to both primary and backup power sources, it serves as an intermediary between equipment and the power supplies, acting as an electrical relay. An ATS can also act as a redundant, rack-mounted power supply for equipment that is connected to a power source with only one cord.

In the data center, it is vitally important to have uninterrupted power. To achieve this goal, the systems in the power path must be properly maintained and tested. To ensure reliability in the event of a power outage, data center administrators need to routinely monitor the ATS.
 ATS units can channel considerable amounts of energy, which can put heavy stress on the electrical contacts involved, so regular maintenance is critical.

4)How to remotely control an automatic transfer switch.

As you see on the automatic transfer switch Video, you can connect a switch for a remote control from BMS (building management system).
In side ACB under voltage coil also function to open Load supply if incoming voltage down to under 200 volt for domestic use and 370 volt for 3 phase power system.

Sunday 24 September 2017

Important of Power factor(pf) in AC system.

A number of power quality issues including electrical harmonics, poor power factor, voltage instability and imbalance, impact on the efficiency of electrical equipment's.

1)What is power factor ?

In Alternative current (AC) system have two quantity namely voltage and current, the power factor has cosine angle between the voltage and current.
Pf will be lagging & leading depends upon load connected.
if inductive load such as motor pf of the circuit lagging,where capacitive load such as capacitor
have leading pf.

2)Lossless because low power factor(pf) ?

~High energy uses and costs.
~ Failure of motors.
~Failure of electrical and  electronics equipment.
~Malfunction of Fuses & Circuit Breakers.
~Unstable equipment operations.
~Overheating of transformers and switch-gears.

3)How does Power Factor Correction work?

#see_video_how power factor improved

Power Factor is the ratio of Active Power(KW) to the Apparent Power(KVA) drawn by any load. 

Low power factor leads to increased transmission and distribution losses leads to increased electricity bills without increase in productivity, heating & hunting of DG with increased fuel consumption.

Pf =kw/KVA
True power/apparent power.
Generally power factor in varies between 0 to 1.
it is best practice to maintain power factor unity(1).

 PFC systems increase the efficiency of power supply, delivering immediate cost savings on electricity.

    Real Power is the power that actually powers the equipment and performs useful, Productive work.

    Reactive Power is required by some equipment (e.g. transformers, motors and relays) to produce a magnetic field for operation; however it does not perform any real work.

    Apparent Power is the vector sum of Real and Reactive Power and corresponds to the total power required to produce the equivalent amount of real power for the load.

A capacitor generate leading power factor for compensation of inductive power factor,
In term of KVAR.
Where KVAR known reactive power,equal to

Voltage x current x sin Phi.

4) how to calculate pf.?

Q-1) a 10 KW induction motor operate in 220 volt 50 hz power supply, if motor 50 ampere current ,then calculate power factor of motor.
Q-2) if require maintain power factor 0.98,calculate VAR value of capacitor.

Given in Q-1
Active power(KW)=10
apparent power =V x I x cosine

Cosine = KW/VI

if require 0.98 pf.
KVAR =V x I x sin phi
           = V x I x √[ 1-pf x pf]

              11 x √[1-0.98 x0.98]
            =11 x 0.4
             =0.440 KVAR

Hence 440 VAR capacitor bank require to maintain 0.98 pf of induction motor, to efficient operation and save electricity bill.

Saturday 23 September 2017

Air property of air-conditioning systems

hello friends,
  1. Today discuss regarding air properties used in air conditioning system.

The purpose of Air-conditioning?

1)Comfort Air-conditioning for human beings; 
2)Industrial Air-conditioning for equipment, raw material 
and goods


 It is the temp. which the thermometer can measure in air.
 For HUMAN comfort/relaxing Temperarure will be 21 deg.  

WET BULB TEMP.(w.b.t): 

      If a moist wick is placed over a thermometer bulb, the evaporation of moisture from the wick will lower the thermometer reading .This temp. is known as the w.b.t.
     wet bulb temperature measurement done by cyclometer with two thermometer installed,one for Dry bulb 7 second for Wet bulb temperature

DEW POINT (d. p): 

is the temperature below which water vapor in the air start to condense known DEW point.


Is the presence of moisture or water vapor in the air. the amount of humidity in the air affects the rate of evaporation of perspiration from the body. Dry air causes rapid evaporation.


     Is a term used to express the amount of moisture in a given sample of air.also the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature. for human filling comfort with Relative Humidity between 55 % to 65 %.